Rumiñahui, Ruminavi, Rumiñagui, or alternatively Rumiaoui, born late 15th century, died June 25, 1535, was a general during the civil war, who after the death of Emperor Atahualpa, led the resistance against the Spanish in the northern part of the Inca Empire (modern-day Ecuador) in 1533.

Born in Pillaro in the modern province of Tungurahua, Ecuador, his given name was Ati II Pillahuaso. Inca historians tend to believe that he was Atahualpa’s half-brother, born from a native noble woman. When Francisco Pizarro imprisoned Atahualpa and held him in the Ransom Room, Rumiñahui marched towards Cajamarca to deliver a huge amount of gold. But when the Spaniards broke their word, executing Atahualpa and slaughtering his troops, Rumiñahui returned to the kingdoms of Quito and is believed to have ordered the Treasure of the Llanganatis thrown off a cliff into a lake or crater.

Learning of Rumiñahui’s resistance, Pizarro sent his lieutenant Sebastián de Benalcázar North to take Quito and bring whatever treasure he could recover. The forces of Rumiñahui and Benalcázar met at the Battle of Mount Chimborazo, where Rumiñahui was defeated. However, before the Spanish forces captured Quito, Rumiñahui ordered it burned to the ground, and the Ñusties (temple virgins) killed to preserve their honor. Rumiñahui was eventually captured, tortured and killed by the Spanish but never revealed the location of the treasure.

Rumiñahui is a nickname. In Kichwa it means “eye of stone,” interpreted by some to reference his firm stance against the Spanish at the Battle of Mount Chimborazo.